After The Fire Chicago’s Leading Role In Modern American Architecture

The Great Fire of 1871 reduced the vast majority of the city of Chicago to a ruined heap of brick and ash. The devastation at the time could not possibly have been seen as an opportunity, but in truth the fire created a blank slate with which the great architects of the day could experiment.

The result over the next 50 years was a transformation of a regular Midwestern city into a world-class jewel of modern architectural beauty. Although New York can lay some claim to wonders of architecture, it is Chicago that most prides itself on its innovative accomplishments. Here is a brief overview of the changes that came After The Fire.

How it used to be

In the 40 or so years before the fire, Chicago grew by leaps and bounds both in the number of buildings and in the vast number of new residents, many of which were immigrants. However, very little planning went into the growth of the city; it consisted mainly of brick and mortar office buildings, factories, and a vast sea of wood shanties that were virtually thrown up overnight to accommodate the influx of people.

Streets were made of wood and sidewalks were made of wood: when the city received very little rainfall in the summer of 1871, conditions were ripe for disaster. On October 8, a full quarter of the city’s residential areas and nearly its entire business district went up in flames and 300 lives were lost.

What happened next

Chicago was (and still is) a city with a lot of heart and a lot of spunk. Nearly immediately, 50 million dollars was pumped into rebuilding efforts: this time with plenty of planning, foresight, and ingenuity. Only the best architects and engineers were hired to do the job, and the newest techniques in steel and other construction methods were used: this city was going to be not only a showpiece, it was also going to last.

The results

The great architect Louis Sullivan coined the famous phrase: “Form follows function,” and these words would come to define the city’s new sense of style during the rebuilding. The modern skyscraper was born in the Windy City, and although the initial one is long gone, many remain to be both used and admired as architectural marvels. The modern technology of steel framework made these skyscrapers possible and they are what give Chicago its distinctive and unique skyline. Other styles of architecture thrived as well, and many Art Deco buildings grace the downtown area.

Chicago is proud of its architecture and every important building is marked with a plaque, a date, and an attached history or interesting anecdote. Chicago boat tours are a popular way to easily view and learn about these buildings, as are walking tours. No one could have predicted over 170 years ago that The Great Fire would result in an even more beautiful city that would literally rise out of the ashes: but Chicago did just that.

Traditional Architecture In India.

Now a day’s in india traditional architecture is the widespread form of building since many years, constructed through traditional way of building methods by local builders without using the services of a professional architect. Due to western influence, architects in india are not using traditional architecture techniques now that are based on indian climatic conditions. In India, building materials has different categories from mud-plastered to reed-thatched to timber-framed in accordance with the availability of local material. Some houses are built to withstand earthquakes, while others can be rebuilt quickly if washed away by heavy monsoon rains.

Materials used for it:

In some areas where there are limitations of building material, natural materials such as mud, grass, bamboo, thatch or sticks are used, instead of transporting materials from far place which is a blot on sustainability practices, for semi-permanent structures which require regular maintenance and replacement. The advantages of such traditional architecture are the construction materials are cheap and easily available and relatively little labor is required.

As the needs and resources of the people change, vernacular architecture evolve to include more durable materials such as stones, clay tiles, metals etc. Though they are more expensive to build, they are very durable structures.

Climate has a major influence over traditional architect:

In India climate has a major influence on traditional architecture. High thermal mass or significant amounts of insulation characterize buildings in cold climates. Lighter materials are used to built buildings in warm climates and designed for sufficient cross-ventilation through openings in the fabric of the building. In areas which have high levels of rainfall, flat roofs are avoided, even in areas with flat roofs, water harvesting techniques are being used.

About iDream:

iDream is a International Class Architectural & Interior Design Firm offering its services in India and across the Asia Pacific region through an alliance. Set up in the year 2003, iDream brings together a resource pool of senior industry professionals with over two decades of experience in handling major projects in formats like “Design Consultancy”, “Project Management Consultancy” and “Design & Build”, across the globe

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Dos And Donts In Exterior Home Improvement

Exterior landscaping, hardscaping and retaining walls are some of the newest trends in exterior home improvement. Landscaping has been an old practice of homeowners, but through innovative ideas, designs and modern technology, it has become more interesting and necessary. Landscaping doesnt only develop a homeowners creativity, but also enhances the beauty of our surroundings.

If you are considering landscaping in Seattle, you will definitely need help and assistance from professionals in this field. Tapping the best ones is not a problem since there are a lot of reliable landscape companies in Seattle that you can avail great service from. With their guidance, skills and equipment, you can be assured of excellent and remarkable results afterwards.

Just like landscaping, you will need a great deal of help if you are also contemplating on retaining walls in Seattle. You definitely cannot perform the job by yourself because like other aspects of home improvement, its a tedious job that requires full attention and proper handling. Therefore, if youre about to have your home undergo wall retaining to make it more attractive, better call your trusted and dependable contractor for retaining walls or else you might regret the end result. Putting this kind of task in the hands of those whove mastered the craft, will make you happier in the end for they will meet your expectations.

However ideal a home improvement is, its important to note that retaining walls and landscaping are costly. It would help if you could calculate your possible expenses before getting the job done so that you can prepare the required budget. List down the things you want done or repaired in your home. Dont forget to include the materials that are needed for the job. After doing this lay out a budget plan but if you are not aware of the expenses you could accrue, request from the contractor an estimated rate that would be inclusive of all the services and materials. All it really takes to improve your home is good preparation to avoid budget shortage or worse, an unfinished project.

Knowing what you want to improve in your home is very important. Looking even into the tiniest detail of home improvement is always advantageous. This can be achieved with the help and proper guidance of the pros. If in doubt, always turn to them for they will never do anything to ruin your home. Relying on somebody who is clueless of landscaping, hardscaping and other areas of home improvement will only bring forth what you dread for your home.

Be wise, practical and ready.

Restore Natural Sleep Architecture

Advances in brain polysomnography in the 1950s lead to our current understanding of what happens in the brain as we sleep. When we go to sleep our brain progresses through five stages of sleep:

Stages 1 and 2 light sleep begins the process of slowing brain waves;
Stages 3 and 4 known as slow wave sleep [SWS] or deep sleep follows;
Stage 5 or rapid eye movement [REM] predominates in the last third of the night.

The preservation of this natural brain rhythm of sleep or sleep architecture is every bit as important as the overall sleep time. We need to experience all 5 stages of sleep in order to wake rested.

These stages are not necessarily experienced in chronological order but cycle throughout the night. In stages 1& 2 sleep the mind is in a light sleep, easily roused. Stages 3 & 4 are a deeper level of sleep where rousing is more difficult and people report feeling disoriented if awakened. In Stage 5, or REM sleep, the brain activity is similar to that when awake but the body remains in full muscle paralysis except for respiratory and cardiac function. This allows the mind to experience a full dream without consequent bodily movement.

To obtain a good nights sleep it is very important to avoid factors that disrupt sleep architecture. Our sleep environment, the medication we take, our diet and our thought patterns can directly impede sleep patterns. The good news is, however, these factors are eminently within our control to change and the preservation of constructive sleep architecture will result in better sleep.

Zenbev contains a natural source of tryptophan, the precursor of natural melatonin in a patented blend of ingredients which allows for the restoration of sleep architecture in a way that no other sleep remedy allows. The conversion of natural source tryptophan to natural melatonin occurs in the dark and continues as long as your bedroom is dark. This natural production of melatonin allows all night long is different from synthetic melatonin which dissipates quickly after it is ingested.

Fuerteventura Holidays For Lovers Of Contemporary Architecture

The Spanish are well known for their passion for architectural innovation. From the time of the Moors, the country has been home to unique buildings, and today Spains cities showcase the work of architectural geniuses like Antoni Gaudi, Frank Gehri and Norman Foster. But if exploring cutting-edge architecture is your passion, you dont have to settle for a city break. Fuerteventura holidays or a beach break in Lanzarote or Tenerife can also offer the opportunity to immerse yourself in architectural gems while you soak up the sun.

Lanzarote family holidays dont seem like an obvious architecture-spotting opportunity, but thanks to the architect, artist and decorator Csar Manrique, the island is home to stunning and innovative structures that are as interactive as they are beautiful. Manriques passion for melding 20th-century design with remarkable natural features is embodied in the Jameos del Agua. Housed in an ancient tunnel created by molten lava from the Corona volcano, the centres flowing white-painted passageways offer new visual experiences at every turn. Theres a natural salt-water pool, lush tropical gardens, and a huge vaulted space that has been converted into an auditorium offering remarkable acoustics. Manrique also created the Mirador del Rio, a clifftop lookout point to the north of the island, where a balustraded cafe, shop and a viewing platform have been integrated into the natural lava formations, as well as the Farmhouse Museum, where pristine white walls, green doors and spectacular sculpture pay tribute to the islands agricultural heritage.

If youre planning family holidays to Tenerife, a visit to Santiago Calatravas Auditorio de Tenerife is a must. Classed amongst the greatest living architects in the world, Calatrava now operates internationally he is currently designing the future train station at the rebuilt World Trade Center in New York City, which is scheduled to open in 2015. The auditorium, completed in 2003, is home to the Tenerife Symphony Orchestra and is widely regarded as the finest example of modern architecture on the Canary Islands. Its both lauded and criticised for its visual similarities to the Sydney Opera House; both buildings echo their natural surroundings of waves and sails. Looming over the auditorium are the two towers that make up the Torres de Santa Cruz, a residential development comprising the tallest twin towers in Spain. Some might disapprove of their stark modernism, but the towers are considered a symbol of the city.

Fuerteventura holidays have much to offer in the way of innovative architecture from various periods. The small town of La Olivia is home to a mixture of modern and historic buildings, including the Iglesia de Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria, the Casa de los Coroneles and the Casa Mane Art Centre. But to experience memorable design from within, why not plan a stay at the spectacular Grand Hotel Atlantis Bahia Real? A tribute to Spains Moorish heritage, its opulent dcor, lush vegetation and warm tones create the perfect environment in which to wind down after a hard days sightseeing.